Sumary of Death from heart attack or stroke may be the first CVD event in some smokers:
- , lead study author, assistant professor of medicine in the division of cardiology at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago The researchers pooled data from nine long-term cohort studies in the U.S. to evaluate multiple lifestyle factors as well as cardiovascular and other health outcomes.
- 50.1% cigarette smokers) between the ages of 20 and 79, who were free of cardiovascular disease at the start of the studies.
- For middle-aged women, the long-term rates of CVD risk were nearly 10% higher in those who smoked compared to those who didn’t (34.7% for smokers;
- Middle-aged men who smoked had a more than 10% higher long-term risk for cardiovascular disease then men who didn’t smoke (46% for smokers;
- With respect to CVD subtypes, young men who smoked had the highest long-term risk for heart attacks (24%), while young women had the highest long-term risk (11.3%) for other CVD causes of death, such as stroke or heart failure.
- Khan also noted that they were not able to account for more specifics about the people who smoked, such as the number of years participants smoked, the number of cigarettes smoked per day or whether people who had previously smoked were included in the studies.