Sumary of Urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA is a prognosticator of COVID-19:
- It is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the betacoronavirus cluster comprising seven members, including SARS and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
- Methods used to screen and diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection include detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody, and antigen.
- Antigen-based diagnostic tests are less sensitive than reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) -based tests, but they are faster and more convenient alternatives.
- The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in different body fluids are variable, indicating a distinct pattern of persistence and clearance of viral RNA in body fluids of COVID-19 patients.
- Furthermore, the positive rates detected in extra-pulmonary specimens are usually lower than those seen in nasopharyngeal swabs.
- It was also found that under certain specific conditions, SARS-CoV-2 might infiltrate from the bloodstream to the kidney parenchyma and may eventually result in renal injury and the urinary shedding of viruses.
- Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms despite a low urinary virus RNA positive rate among COVID-19 patients.
- Based on the results, the patients were divided into two groups – the urinary SARS-CoV-2 negative group (URNA−, 38 cases) and the positive group (URNA+, 15 cases).