Sumary of Can prior human seasonal coronavirus antibody response patterns predict SARS-CoV-2 inhibition?:
- To date, the ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) – has led to over 192.17 million confirmed cases and over 4.13 million deaths.
- However, it is only the seventh pathogenic human coronavirus to be identified.
- A new study, recently released as a preprint on the medRxiv* server, reports the intriguing finding that the cross-neutralizing antibodies elicited by human seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs) show varying ability to prevent binding between the SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen and its cognate receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
- Background Four endemic seasonal coronaviruses have been circulating in the world for years past, causing recurrent minor infections such as the common cold.
- As a result, antibodies to these viruses are present universally, but their titer wanes over time.
- This indicates not only that immunity is short-lived, but that antibodies to any or all of the four sCoVs may be present, producing highly variable ratios of antibodies.
- The genomic sequence of the sCoVs shows low similarity or identity to the SARS-CoV-2 genome.
- The spike protein of the latter virus shares the common ACE2 receptor only with NL63. However, the spike domains of the sCoVs react with both antibodies and T cells elicited by the betacoronaviruses ARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS- (Middle East respiratory syndrome) CoV.